title: HTML date: 2021-07-20 19:16:42 background: bg-[#cc5534] tags: - web categories: - Programming intro: | This HTML quick reference cheat sheet lists the common HTML and HTML5 tags in readable layout.

Getting Started

hello.html {.col-span-2 .row-span-2}

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
    <title>HTML5 Boilerplate</title>
    <h1>Hello world, hello QuickRef.ME!</h1>

Or try it out in the jsfiddle


<!-- this is a comment -->

    Or you can comment out a
    large number of lines.


<p>I'm from QuickRef.ME</p>
<p>Share quick reference cheat sheet.</p>

See: The Paragraph element

HTML link

<a href="https://quickref.me">QuickRef</a>
<a href="mailto:jack@abc.com">Email</a>
<a href="tel:+12345678">Call</a>
<a href="sms:+12345678&body=ha%20ha">Msg</a>

href The URL that the hyperlink points to
rel Relationship of the linked URL
target Link target location: _self, _blank, _top, _parent

See: The <a> Attributes

Image Tag

<img loading="lazy" src="https://xxx.png" alt="Describe image here" width="400" height="400">

src Required, Image location (URL | Path)
alt Describe of the image
width Width of the image
height Height of the image
loading How the browser should load

See: The Image Embed element

Text Formatting Tags

<b>Bold Text</b>
<strong>This text is important</strong>
<i>Italic Text</i>
<em>This text is emphasized</em>
<u>Underline Text</u>
<pre>Pre-formatted Text</pre>
<code>Source code</code>
<del>Deleted text</del>
<mark>Highlighted text (HTML5)</mark>
<ins>Inserted text</ins>
<sup>Makes text superscripted</sup>
<sub>Makes text subscripted</sub>
<small>Makes text smaller</small>
<blockquote>Text Block Quote</blockquote>


<h1> This is Heading 1 </h1>
<h2> This is Heading 2 </h2>
<h3> This is Heading 3 </h3>
<h4> This is Heading 4 </h4>
<h5> This is Heading 5 </h5>
<h6> This is Heading 6 </h6>

You should only have one h1 on your page

Section Divisions

<div></div> Division or Section of Page Content
<span></span> Section of text within other content
<p></p> Paragraph of Text
<br> Line Break
<hr> Basic Horizontal Line

These are the tags used to divide your page up into sections

Inline Frame {.row-span-2}

<iframe title="New York"

↓ Preview

See: The Inline Frame element

JavaScript in HTML

<script type="text/javascript">
    let text = "Hello QuickRef.ME";

External JavaScript

    <script src="app.js"></script>


<style type="text/css">
    h1 {
        color: purple;

External stylesheet

<link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css"/>

HTML5 Tags


    <p>©2023 QuickRef.ME</p>

Header Navigation

      <li><a href="#">Edit Page</a></li>
      <li><a href="#">Twitter</a></li>
      <li><a href="#">Facebook</a></li>

HTML5 Tags {.row-span-4}

article Content that’s independent
aside Secondary content
audio Embeds a sound, or an audio stream
bdi The Bidirectional Isolate element
canvas Draw graphics via JavaScript
data Machine readable content
datalist A set of pre-defined options
details Additional information
dialog A dialog box or sub-window
embed Embeds external application
figcaption A caption or legend for a figure
figure A figure illustrated
footer Footer or least important
header Masthead or important information
main The main content of the document
mark Text highlighted
meter A scalar value within a known range
nav A section of navigation links
output The result of a calculation
picture A container for multiple image sources
progress The completion progress of a task
rp Provides fall-back parenthesis
rt Defines the pronunciation of character
ruby Represents a ruby annotation
section A group in a series of related content
source Resources for the media elements
summary A summary for the <details> element
template Defines the fragments of HTML
time A time or date
track Text tracks for the media elements
video Embeds video
wbr A line break opportunity

HTML5 Video

<video controls="" width="100%">
    <source src="https://interactive-examples.mdn.mozilla.net/media/cc0-videos/flower.mp4" type="video/mp4">
    Sorry, your browser doesn't support embedded videos.

↓ Preview

HTML5 Audio

<audio controls
    Your browser does not support the audio element.

↓ Preview

Your browser does not support the audio element.

HTML5 Ruby

  汉 <rp>(</rp><rt>hàn</rt><rp>)</rp>
  字 <rp>(</rp><rt>zì</rt><rp>)</rp>

↓ Preview

HTML5 kdi

 <li>User <bdi>hrefs</bdi>: 60 points</li>
 <li>User <bdi>jdoe</bdi>: 80 points</li>
 <li>User <bdi>إيان</bdi>: 90 points</li>

↓ Preview

HTML5 progress

<progress value="50" max="100"></progress>

HTML5 mark

<p>I Love <mark>QuickRef.ME</mark></p>

HTML Tables

Table Example {.row-span-2}


HTML Table Tags {.row-span-2}

Tag Description
<table> Defines a table
<th> Defines a header cell in a table
<tr> Defines a row in a table
<td> Defines a cell in a table
<caption> Defines a table caption
<colgroup> Defines a group of columns
<col> Defines a column within a table
<thead> Groups the header content
<tbody> Groups the body content
<tfoot> Groups the footer content

<td> Attributes

Attribute Description
colspan Number of columns a cell should span
headers One or more header cells a cell is related to
rowspan Number of rows a cell should span

See: td#Attributes

<th> Attributes

Attribute Description
colspan Number of columns a cell should span
headers One or more header cells a cell is related to
rowspan Number of rows a cell should span
abbr Description of the cell's content
scope The header element relates to

See: th#Attributes

HTML Lists

Unordered list

    <li>I'm an item</li>
    <li>I'm another item</li>
    <li>I'm another item</li>

See: The Unordered List element

Ordered list

    <li>I'm the first item</li>
    <li>I'm the second item</li>
    <li>I'm the third item</li>

See: The Ordered List element

Definition list

    <dt>A Term</dt>
    <dd>Definition of a term</dd>
    <dt>Another Term</dt>
    <dd>Definition of another term</dd>

See: The Description List element

HTML Forms

Form tags {.row-span-2}

<form method="POST" action="api/login">
  <label for="mail">Email: </label>
  <input type="email" id="mail" name="mail">
  <label for="pw">Password: </label>
  <input type="password" id="pw" name="pw">
  <input type="submit" value="Login">
  <input type="checkbox" id="ck" name="ck">
  <label for="ck">Remember me</label>

↓ Preview

The HTML <form> element is used to collect and send information to an external source.

Form Attribute

Attribute Description
name Name of form for scripting
action URL of form script
method HTTP method, POST / GET (default)
enctype Media type, See enctype
onsubmit Runs when the form was submit
onreset Runs when the form was reset

Label tags

<!-- Nested label -->
<label>Click me 
<input type="text" id="user" name="name"/>

<!-- 'for' attribute -->
<label for="user">Click me</label>
<input id="user" type="text" name="name"/>

for in a label references an input's id attribute

Input tags

<label for="Name">Name:</label>
<input type="text" name="Name" id="">

↓ Preview

See: HTML input Tags

Textarea tags

<textarea rows="2" cols="30" name="address" id="address"></textarea>

↓ Preview

Textarea is a multiple-line text input control

Radio Buttons

<input type="radio" name="gender" id="m">
<label for="m">Male</label>
<input type="radio" name="gender" id="f">
<label for="f">Female</label>

↓ Preview

Radio buttons are used to let the user select exactly one


<input type="checkbox" name="s" id="soc">
<label for="soc">Soccer</label>
<input type="checkbox" name="s" id="bas">
<label for="bas">Baseball</label>

↓ Preview

Checkboxes allows the user to select one or more

Select tags

<label for="city">City:</label>
<select name="city" id="city">
    <option value="1">Sydney</option>
    <option value="2">Melbourne</option>
    <option value="3">Cromwell</option>

↓ Preview

A select box is a dropdown list of options

Fieldset tags

    <legend>Your favorite monster</legend>
    <input type="radio" id="kra" name="m">
    <label for="kraken">Kraken</label><br/>
    <input type="radio" id="sas" name="m">
    <label for="sas">Sasquatch</label>

↓ Preview

Datalist tags(HTML5)

<label for="b">Choose a browser: </label>
<input list="list" id="b" name="browser"/>
<datalist id="list">
  <option value="Chrome">
  <option value="Firefox">
  <option value="Internet Explorer">
  <option value="Opera">
  <option value="Safari">
  <option value="Microsoft Edge">

↓ Preview

Submit and Reset Buttons

<form action="register.php" method="post">
  <label for="foo">Name:</label>
  <input type="text" name="name" id="foo">
  <input type="submit" value="Submit">
  <input type="reset" value="Reset">

↓ Preview

Submit the data to server; Reset to default values

HTML input Tags {.cols-2}

Input Attributes {.row-span-2}

The input tag is an empty element, identifying the particular type of field information to obtain from a user.

<input type="text" name="?" value="?" minlength="6"	 required />

type="…" The type of data that is being input
value="…" Default value
name="…" Used to describe this data in the HTTP request
id="…" Unique identifier that other HTML elements
readonly Stops the user from modifying
disabled Stops any interaction
checked The radio or checkbox select or not
required Being compulsory, See required
placeholder="…" Adds a temporary, See ::placeholder
autocomplete="off" Disable auto completion
autocapitalize="none" Disable auto capitalization
inputmode="…" Display a specific keyboard, See inputmode
list="…" The id of an associated datalist
maxlength="…" Maximum number of characters
minlength="…" Minimum number of characters
min="…" Minimum numerical value on range & number
max="…" Maximum numerical value on range & number
step="…" How the number will increment in range & number
pattern="…" Specifies a Regular expression, See pattern
autofocus Be focused
spellcheck Perform spell checking
multiple Whether to allow multiple values
accept="" Expected file type in file upload controls

Also see: Attributes for the <input> element

Input types

type="button" Button

New Input Types in HTML5


Input CSS selectors

input:focus When its keyboard focused
See: Input pseudo classes

HTML meta Tags {.cols-2}

Meta tags {.row-span-3}

The meta tag describes meta data within an HTML document. It explains additional material about the HTML.

<meta charset="utf-8">
<!-- title -->
<meta property="og:title"  content="···">
<meta name="twitter:title" content="···">

<!-- url -->
<link rel="canonical"       href="https://···">
<meta property="og:url"  content="https://···">
<meta name="twitter:url" content="https://···">

<!-- description -->
<meta name="description"         content="···">
<meta property="og:description"  content="···">
<meta name="twitter:description" content="···">

<!-- image -->
<meta property="og:image"  content="https://···">
<meta name="twitter:image" content="https://···">

<!-- ua -->
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1">

<!-- viewport -->
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=1024">

Open Graph

<meta property="og:type" content="website">
<meta property="og:locale" content="en_CA">
<meta property="og:title" content="HTML cheatsheet">
<meta property="og:url" content="https://quickref.me/html">
<meta property="og:image" content="https://xxx.com/image.jpg">
<meta property="og:site_name" content="Name of your website">
<meta property="og:description" content="Description of this page">

Used by Facebook, Instagram, Pinterest, LinkedIn, etc.

Twitter Cards

<meta name="twitter:card" content="summary">
<meta name="twitter:site" content="@QuickRef_ME">
<meta name="twitter:title" content="HTML cheatsheet">
<meta name="twitter:url" content="https://quickref.me/html">
<meta name="twitter:description" content="Description of this page">
<meta name="twitter:image" content="https://xxx.com/image.jpg">

See: Twitter Card Documentation


<meta name="ICBM" content="45.416667,-75.7">
<meta name="geo.position" content="45.416667;-75.7">
<meta name="geo.region" content="ca-on">
<meta name="geo.placename" content="Ottawa">

See: Geotagging

Also see